This paper was given at the day conference in Bordeaux (MSH Aquitaine) on 5th December 2014 co-organised by the Universities of Bordeaux-Montaigne, Poitiers and Toulouse 1, with the generous help of the French Association of Irish Studies (SOFEIR). Link to WebTV Montaigne recording.
The Glasgow Herald, 2 January 2013.
Walker, Graham. ‘The Protestant Irish in Scotland’ in Devine, Thomas M. (ed.), Irish Immigrants and Scottish Society in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Edinburgh, John Donald, 1991, p. 45-46. Irish migration to Scotland was by no means a new phenomenon. Since the early modern era, Scotland had welcomed its share of Irish temporary migrants, from agricultural labourers to linen artisans and Presbyterian students attending Scottish universities.
Many arguments in this section are taken from the only fully comprehensive account by Devine, Thomas M. The Great Highland Famine: Hunger, Emigration and the Scottish Highlands in the Nineteenth Century, Edinburgh, John Donald, 1988.
Devine, Thomas M. ‘Highland Landowners and the Highland Potato Famine’, in Devine, Thomas M. (ed.), Exploring the Scottish Past. Themes in the History of Scottish Society, East Lothian, Tuckwell Press, 1995, p. 159.
Kinealy, Christine. ‘Potatoes, providence and philanthropy: the role of private charity during the Irish Famine’, in O’Sullivan, Patrick, The Irish World Wide. Vol 6: The Meaning of the Famine, Leicester, Leicester University Press, 1997, p. 140-171.
Bensimon, Fabrice and Colantonio, Laurent. La Grande Famine en Irlande, Paris, PUF, 2014, p. 119.
Gray, Malcolm. ‘The Highland Potato Famine of the 1840s’, The Economic History Review, 7/3, 1955, p. 357-368.
Devine, Thomas M. To the Ends of the Earth. Scotland’s Global Diaspora 1750-2010, Penguin, London, 2011, p. 117.
Devine, Thomas M. ‘The Highland Clearances’, op. cit., p. 136.
Devine, Thomas M. The Scottish Nation 1707-2000, London, 2000, p. 413.
Even though they shared with their Irish counterparts a strong eviction policy. See for instance Devine, Thomas M. ‘The Highland Clearances’, op.cit.
The Roman Catholic hierarchy was restored in Scotland in 1878.
Catholic Directory for Scotland, Edinburgh, 1848, p. 100-106.
Glasgow Courrier, 10 June 1824.
Walker, Graham. ‘The Protestant Irish in Scotland’, in Devine, Thomas M. (ed.), Irish Immigrants and Scottish Society in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries – Proceedings of the Scottish Historical Studies Seminar, Edinburgh, John Donald, 1991, p. 48.
Handley, James E. The Irish in Scotland, Cork, Cork University Press, 1964, p. 49.
Handley, James E. The Irish in Modern Scotland, Cork, Cork University Press, 1947, p. 24.
Handley, James E. The Irish in Modern Scotland, op. cit., p. 25.
Catholic Directory for Scotland, Edinburgh, 1851, p. 89.
Glasgow Archdiocese Archives, MW1/1: A History of St Margaret’s, Airdrie, 1830-1926, p. 11.
Catholic Directory for Scotland, Edinburgh, 1848, p. 91.
Catholic Directory for Scotland, Edinburgh, 1850, p. 82.
Catholic Directory for Scotland, Edinburgh, 1850, p. 82.
Glasgow City Archives, TD 729/51: Airdrie Hibernian Friendly Society 1844-1861 [Rules and Regulations, 30 August 1844].
Catholic Directory for Scotland, Edinburgh, 1869, p. 97. These societies included: The Living rosary; The Children of Mary; the Truce; and Our Lady of Perpetual Succour.
Glasgow City Archives, TD 729/51.
Glasgow Free Press, 22 March 1851.
Handley, James E. The Irish in Scotland, op. cit., p. 204; Aspinwall, Bernard. ‘Scots and Irish ministering to immigrants, 1830-1878’, The Innes Review, 47, 1996, p. 51.
Glasgow Archdiocese Archives, MW1/1: A History of St Margaret’s, Airdrie, 1830-1926, p. 16.
Foster, John, Houston, Muir, and Madigan, Chris. ‘Distinguishing Catholics and Protestants among Irish Immigrants to Clydeside: A New Approach to Immigration and Ethnicity in Victorian Britain’, Irish Studies Review, 10/2, 2002, p. 56.
Campbell, Alan B. The Lanarkshire Miners. A Social History of their Trade Unions, 1775-1874, Edinburgh, John Donald, 1979, p. 182. See also Collins, Brenda. ‘The Origins of Irish Immigration’, in Devine, Thomas M. (ed) Irish Immigration and Scottish Society, op. cit., p. 14. According to our 1851 Census sample, in the Coatdyke area (part of Coatbridge), 62 per cent of the 218 recorded Irish-born came from Ulster (counties Roscommon, Antrim, and Tyrone).
McFarland, Elaine. Protestants first: Orangeism in nineteenth century Scotland. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1990; Meredith, Ian. ‘Irish Migrants in the Episcopal Church in the Nineteenth Century’, in Mitchell, Martin (ed), New Perspectives on the Irish in Scotland, Edinburgh, John Donald, 2008, p. 44-64.
See Walker, Graham. ‘Irish Protestants’, in Devine, Thomas M. (ed), Irish immigrants and Scottish Society..., op. cit.
See the method used by Foster, John & al. ‘Distinguishing Catholics and Protestants among Irish Immigrants...’, art. cit.
National Archives of Scotland, HH21/46/001.
Callum Brown remarked that socially, it was not surprising that the proportion of Presbyterian dissidents should be weak amongst Irish Protestant working men given that, for instance, in the 1850s and the 1860s, in the Free and United Presbyterian Churches practices such as ‘fencing the table’ were applied to prevent people morally or socially suspicious from going to these churches.
McFarland, Elaine. Protestants first,... op. cit., p. 70.
See also Kaufman, Eric. ‘The Orange Order in Scotland since 1860: A social analysis’, in Mitchell, Martin J. (ed), New Perspectives…, op.cit., p. 159. On the scarcity of Orange lodge records, see MacRaild, Donald. Faith, Fraternity and Fighting. The Orange Order and Irish Migrants in Northern England, c. 1850-1920, Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 2005, p. 7-13.
Senior, Hereward. Orangeism in Ireland and Britain 1795-1836, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966, p. 274. The same pattern is also distinctive of Orangeism in North-East England (see MacRaild, Donald. Faith, Fraternity and Fighting…, op. cit.).
See Akenson, Donald. Small Differences: Irish Catholics and Irish Protestants, 1815-1922: an International Perspective, Kingston, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1988. See also Akenson, Donald H. ‘The historiography of the Irish in the United States’, in O’Sullivan, Patrick (ed), The Irish World Wide. Vol. II: The Irish in the New Communities, London, Leicester University Press, 1997, p. 99-127.
Vaughan, Geraldine. The Local Irish in the West of Scotland 1851-1921, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 22-23.
The “No Popery” movement in the 1850s with anti-Catholic lectures affected North America as well as Britain. For instance the aforementioned John Sayers Orr enjoyed a career in America as well as in Scotland. He was reported to preach and rant before crowds of over 50,000 on steps of the city hall in the 1850s in New York. See MacRaild, Donald (ed). The Great Famine and Beyond: Irish Migrants in Britain in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Dublin, Irish Academic Press, 2000, p. 53.
The Glasgow Free Press, 19 July 1851. See also: Scottish Catholic Archives, WD/5/1: p. 260
The Glasgow Free Press, 7 June 1851.
The Glasgow Free Press, 29 March 1851.
The Glasgow Free Press, 24 January 1852. On local authorities’ authorization of Orange lodges in England, see MacRaild, Donald M. Faith, Fraternity and Fighting…, op. cit., p. 177-78.
Handley, James E. The Irish in Modern Scotland, op. cit., p. 20-46.
Devine, Thomas M., To The Ends of the Earth, op. cit., p. 119.
Parliamentary Papers: Eight Decennial Census of the Population of Scotland taken April 3d 1871 with Report, p. XXXIV.
The Airdrie, Coatbridge, Bathgate and Wishaw Advertiser, 18 July 1857. An Irish correspondent in 1867 wrote a letter in which he declared: ‘Brought up in your locality, I well know the prejudice that exists against Irishmen – a prejudice, too, that differs only in degree and not in nature, whether it has reference to Protestants or to Roman Catholics’ (The Airdrie, Coatbridge, Bathgate and Wishaw Advertiser, 2 November 1867).Haut de page