Editors' note: At the time of writing the article by Warwick Funnell, ‘Social reform, military accounting and the pursuit of economy during the liberal apotheosis, 1906-1912’, Accounting History Review, Volume 21, Issue 1 March 2011, pp. 69 - 93, had not been published.
From Gladstone's second Midlothian speech (1879), W.E. GLADSTONE, (ed. M.R.D. FOOT), Midlothian Speeches, Leicester University Press, 1971, p. 90.
ibid, p. 92.
‘New British Premier outlines his policy', The New York Times, 22nd December 1905, p. 6.
1906 election pamphlet issued by Joseph Pease, GAINFORD Papers, Nuffield College, Oxon, 77/66.
John MORLEY, (Viscount Morley of Blackburn), Reflections: Volume II, MacMillan, 1917, pp. 89-90.
For more on Rosebery's domestic policies, see David POWELL, 'The Liberal Ministeries and Labour, 1892-1895', History: The Journal of the Historical Association, Volume 68, Number 224, October 1983, pp. 408-426.
See minutes for 15th June 1903 meeting, Minutes of the Co-Efficient Club, Archives Division, Library of the London School of Economics.
'Dinner to Liberal Leaders', The Times, Saturday 15th June 1901, p. 12, col. A.
Rosebery to the City Liberal Club, quoted in 'Liberals! Forward! March!!', Westminster Review, October 1901, p. 370.
R.W Perks to Asquith, 7th January 1902, Asquith Papers, Bodleian Library, MS Asquith 10.
Richard PRICE, An Imperial War and the British Working Class, Routledge & Keegan Paul, 1972, p. 13.
David A. MARTIN, Pacifism: An Historical and Sociological Study, Routledge & Keegan Paul, 1965, p. 172.
Evening News report on McCrae's speech at the Picardy Place Hall, 27th March 1900, McCrae Papers, LSE Archives. Pretoria was the capital of the Transvaal Republic, one of the two Boer states.
Edward Grey, for instance, during the 1903-4 Army Estimates Debate, see HC Deb 11 March 1903 vol 119 cc 428-437, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1903/mar/11/army-estimates-1903-4.
See 'Anglo-Japanese Agreement: Motion for an Adjournment', HC Deb, 13 February 1902, vol 102; cc1272-313, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1902/feb/13/anglo-japanese-agreement#S4V0102P0_19020213_HOC_248.
David Lloyd George to William George, 14th March 1902, Lloyd George Family Letters, Kenneth O. MORGAN, (ed.), University of Wales Press, 1973, p. 131.
Election Address to the constituents of Haddingtonshire, 9th January 1906, Haldane Papers, National Library of Scotland, ff. 12-13, MS 5907.
Richard SHANNON, The Crisis of Imperialism: 1865-1915, Paladin Press, 1976, pp. 341-3.
Each year four sets of 'Estimates' – projected spending for the next year – were laid before Parliament. These were for the Navy, the Army, the Government of India and the Civil Service. They had to be approved by Parliament for funding to be allocated.
John Wilson, one of Campbell-Bannerman's biographers, names Campbell-Bannerman, Haldane, Grey, Asquith, Lord Ripon (the Leader of the Lords) and Edmond Fitzmaurice (Grey's deputy). See John WILSON, C.B: A Biography of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Constable, 1973, p. 530.
See Paul KENNEDY, The Rise of Anglo-German Antagonism, 1860-1914, George Allen & Unwin, 1982, p. 283.
'A Scientific Army', The Manchester Guardian, 9th March 1906, p. 7 and 'On Colonel Lee's letter', Manchester Guardian, 19th July 1906, p 6.
F. W. Hirst (editor of The Economist) to Campbell-Bannerman, 9th November 1907, Campbell-Bannerman Papers, British Library, ff. 153-4, Add 41240.
Letter from Liverpool Reform Club to R.R. Cherry MP (Attorney-General for Ireland), c.15th February 1908, Campbell-Bannerman Papers, ibid, ff. 229-230, Add 41240.
Murray MacDonald, John Brunner et al to Campbell-Bannerman, 4th November 1907, Campbell-Bannerman Papers, ibid, f. 138, Add 41240 and 'Political Notes', The Times, 30th July 1908, p. 10, col C.
George Whiteley (Liberal Chief Whip) to Campbell-Bannerman, 4th February 1908, Campbell-Bannerman Papers, ibid, ff. 263-4, Add 41231.
Diary entry for 22nd January 1914, Trevor WILSON, The Political Diaries of C.P Scott, (ed.) Collins, 1970, p. 77.
HC Deb 29 March 1909 vol 3 cc61-62, Vote of Censure, 29th March 1909, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1909/mar/29/vote-ofcensure#S5CV0003P0_19090329_HOC_352.
'Burden of Armaments', The Morning Post, No. 42,638, 19th January 1909, p. 8.
Diary entry for 16th March 1909, quoted in A.J.A. MORRIS, Radicalism against War, Longman, 1972, p. 157.
Arthur Lee to Bonar Law, 21st January 1912, Bonar Law Papers, Parliamentary Archives, BL/25/1/46 and 'Mr. Bonar Law and the Army: the Albert Hall speech examined', The Times, 2nd February 1912, p. 4, col A.
David STEVENSON, Armaments and the Coming of War: Europe 1904-1914, Clarendon Press, 1996, p. 9.
A.J.A. MORRIS, The Scaremongers: The Advocacy of War and Rearmament, 1865-1914, Routledge & Keegan Paul, 1984, p. 80.
‘May it [An Englishman’s Home – premièred in 1909] run forever’ – Black and White magazine, quoted Norman LONGMATE, Island Fortress: the defence of Great Britain, 1603-1945, Hutchinson, 1991, p. 419.
Eyre Crowe (senior clerk, Western Department, Foreign Office) to Edward Grey, 31st July 1914, quoted in Arthur PONSONBY, Falsehood in War-Time, E.P. Dutton & Co, 1928, p. 37. Ponsonby was a prominent anti-armament Liberal, and then later Labour, M.P.
Lord Esher to Lord Knollys, 27th May 1906, Maurice V. BRETT, (ed.) The Journals and Letters of Reginald, Viscount Esher, Volume II: 1903-1910, Nicholson & Watson, 1934, pp. 164-6.
'Yesterday in Parliament', The Manchester Guardian, 28th July 1908, p. 7. The Guardian was, arguably, the most important Liberal newspaper outside of London.
‘Mr Lloyd George on the International Situation’, The Times, 22nd July 1911, p. 7, col A.
Lloyd George to Churchill, 27th August 1911, Lloyd George Papers, Parliamentary Archives, C/3/15/6, and Churchill to Lloyd George, 31st August 1911, Lloyd George Papers, ibid, C/3/15/7.
'Mr Gibson Bowles, who writes on finance.....', Manchester Guardian, 18th May 1907, p 8.
Electoral Address of Arthur Ponsonby, 1st May 1908, Ponsonby Papers, Bodleian Library, ff. 1-2, MS Eng hist c 657.
King Lear (Act 3, Scene 6), see Michael BROCK, and Eleanor BROCK, (ed.) H.H Asquith: letters to Venetia Stanley, OUP, 1985.
Arthur Ponsonby to the National Peace Council, c. 13th October 1910, Ponsonby Papers, Bodleian Library, ff. 168-9, MS Eng hist c 658.
Stephen KOSS, Sir John Brunner: Radical Plutocrat, Cambridge University Press, 1970, p. 260.
ibid, pp. 264-5.
'The Liberals and the Navy', The Times, 17th December 1913, p. 10, col C.
Radicalism against War, ibid, p. 268.
'Mr. J.R Macdonald MP: Socialism and Peace', Manchester Guardian, 6th May 1907, p10; HC Deb 23 April 1907 vol 172 cc1593-1602, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1907/apr/23/territorial-and-reserve-forces-bill; 'Mr Grayson in Lancashire', The Times, 19th April 1909, p. 6, col D.
'Election Intelligence', The Morning Post, No. 42,628, 6th January 1909, p. 6 and 'The Youngest Candidate', The Manchester Guardian, 18th January 1909, p. 8.
Radicalism against War: 1905-1914, ibid, p. 226.
Josiah Wedgwood M.P to the Staffordshire Evening Sentinel (Autumn 1914), quoted in C.V. WEDGWOOD, The Last of the Radicals: Josiah Wedgwood M.P, Jonathan Cape, 1951, p. 10.
Richard Haldane to Mary Haldane, 21st October 1908, Haldane Papers, National Library of Scotland, ff. 138-139, MS 5980.
G.C. PEDEN, The Treasury and Public Policy, OUP, 2000, p. 49.
H.C.G MATTHEW, For Gladstone to John Bright on the Gold Coast expedition of 1873, see Gladstone: 1809-1898, OUP, 1997, p. 192.
See Crichton to Seely, early 1906, Mottisone Papers, Nuffield College, Oxford, ff. 102-3, Box 1, 'The Annual Estimates' (leader), The Broad Arrow, No. 1965, Vol LXXVI, 24th February 1906, pp. 205-206 and Clarke to Campbell-Bannerman, 7th March 1906, Campbell-Bannerman Papers, ibid, ff. 129-130, Add. 41213.
Leonard HOBHOUSE, Democracy and Reaction, T. Fisher Unwin, 1904, p. 229.Haut de page